Which Hurricane Forecast Model Should You Trust?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:05 PM GMT on August 07, 2013

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) set a new record in 2012 for accuracy of their 1, 2, 3, and 4-day Atlantic tropical cyclone track forecasts, but had almost no skill making intensity forecasts, according to the 2012 National Hurricane Center Forecast Verification Report, issued in March 2013. The new records for track accuracy were set despite the fact that the season’s storms were harder than average to forecast. The average error in a 1-day forecast was 46 miles, and was 79 miles for 2 days, 116 miles for 3 days, 164 miles for 4 days, and 224 miles for 5 days. The official track forecast had a westward bias of 10 - 17 miles for 1 - 3 day forecasts (i.e., the official forecast tended to fall to the west of the verifying position), and was 38 and 75 miles too far to the northeast for the 4- and 5-day forecasts, respectively.


Figure 1. Verification of official NHC hurricane track forecasts for the Atlantic, 1990 - 2012. Over the past 15 - 20 years, 1 - 3 day track forecast errors have been reduced by about 60%. Track forecast error reductions of about 50% have occurred over the past ten years for 4- and 5-day forecasts. Image credit: 2012 National Hurricane Center Forecast Verification Report.

NHC Intensity Forecasts: Little Improvement Since 1990
Official NHC intensity forecasts did better than usual in 2012, and had errors lower than the 5-year average error for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5-day forecasts. However, 2012's storms were easier to predict than usual, due to due to a lack of rapidly intensifying hurricanes. These rapid intensifiers are typically the source of the largest forecast errors. The skill of official NHC 24-hour intensity forecasts made in 2012 for the Atlantic basin were only about 15% better than a "no-skill" forecast; 2, 3, 4, and 5-day intensity forecasts had no skill.


Figure 2. Verification of official NHC hurricane intensity forecasts for the Atlantic, 1990 - 2012. Intensity forecasts have shown little to no improvement since 1990. Image credit: 2012 National Hurricane Center Forecast Verification Report.

Which Track Model Should You Trust?
As usual, in 2012 the official NHC forecast for Atlantic storms was almost as good as or better than any individual computer models--though NOAA's GFS model did slightly better than the NHC official forecast at 12, 24, and 48-hour periods, and the European model forecast was slightly better at 12-hour forecasts. Despite all the attention given to how the European Center (ECMWF) model outperformed the GFS model for Hurricane Sandy's track at long ranges, the GFS model actually outperformed the European model in 2012 when summing up all track forecasts made for all Atlantic named storms. This occurred, in part, because the European model made a few disastrously bad forecasts for Tropical Storm Debby when it was in the Gulf of Mexico and steering currents were weak. For several runs, the model predicted a Texas landfall, but Debby ended up moving east-northeast to make a Northwest Florida landfall, like the GFS model had predicted. However, the best-performing model averaged over the past three years has been the European Center model, with the GFS model a close second. Wunderground provides a web page with computer model forecasts for many of the best-performing track models used to predict hurricane tracks. The European Center does not permit public display of tropical storm positions from their hurricane tracking module of their model, so we are unable to put ECMWF forecasts on this page. Here are some of the better models NHC regularly looks at:

ECMWF: The European Center's global forecast model
GFS: NOAA's global forecast model
NOGAPS: The Navy's global forecast model (now defunct, replaced by the NAVGEM model in 2013)
UKMET: The United Kingdom Met Office's global forecast model
GFDL: The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's hurricane model, initialized using GFS data
HWRF: The intended successor for the the GFDL hurricane model, also initialized using GFS data
CMC: The Canadian GEM model
BAMM: The very old Beta and Advection Model (Medium layer), which is still useful at longer ranges

If one averages together the track forecasts from the first six of these models, the NHC official forecast will rarely depart much from it. As seen in Figure 3, the HWRF and UKMET were well behind the ECMWF and GFS in forecast accuracy in 2012, but were still respectable. The simple BAMM model did well at 3, 4, and 5-day forecasts. The GFDL and CMC models did quite poorly compared to the ECMWF, GFS, UKMET, and HWRF. The Navy's NOGAPS model also did poorly in 2012, and has been retired. Its replacement for 2013 is called the NAVGEM model.


Figure 3. Skill of computer model forecasts of Atlantic named storms in 2012, compared to a "no skill" model called "CLIPER5" that uses just climatology and persistence to make a hurricane track forecast (persistence means that a storm will tend to keep going in the direction it's current going.) OFCL=Official NHC forecast; GFS=Global Forecast System model; GFDL=Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory model; HWRF=Hurricane Weather Research Forecasting model; UKMET=United Kingdom Met Office model; ECMWF=European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting model; TVCA=one of the consensus models that lends together several of the above models; CMC=Canadian Meteorological Center (GEM) model; BAMM=Beta Advection Model (Medium depth.) Image credit: National Hurricane Center 2012 verification report.

Which Intensity Model Should You Trust?
Don't trust any of them. NHC has two main statistical intensity models, LGEM and DSHP (the SHIPS model with inland decay of a storm factored in.) In addition, four dynamical models that are also use to track hurricanes--the GFS, ECMWF, HWRF, and GFDL models--all offer intensity forecasts. With the exception of the GFS model, which had a skill just 5% better than a "no-skill" intensity forecast for predictions going out 36 hours, all of these models had no skill in their intensity forecasts during 2012. The ECMWF and HWRF models were the worst models for intensity forecasts of 3, 4, and 5 days, with a skill of 20% - 60% lower than a "no-skill" forecast. The LGEM model, which was a decent intensity model in 2011, tanked badly in 2012 and had near-zero skill. The only model that was any good in 2012 was the IVCN "consensus" model, which averages together the intensity forecasts of two or more of the intensity models such as LGEM, GFDL, HWRF, and DSHP.

Some Promising Models From the Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP)
Last year was the fourth year of a ten-year project, called the Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP), aimed at reducing hurricane track and intensity errors by 50%. The new experimental models from HFIP generally performed poorly in 2012. However, the new FIM9 15-km global model was competitive with the ECMWF and GFS models for track, and the new CIRA Statistical Intensity Consensus (SPC3) model for intensity performed better than many of the traditional intensity models.

For those interested in learning more about the hurricane forecast models, NOAA has a 1-hour training video (updated for 2011.) Additional information about the guidance models used at the NHC can be found at NHC and the NOAA/HRD Hurricane FAQ.

Sources of Model Data
You can view 7-day ECMWF and 16-day GFS forecasts on wunderground's wundermap with the model layer turned on.
Longer ten-day ECMWF forecasts are available from the ECMWF web site.
FSU's experimental hurricane forecast page (CMC, ECMWF, GFDL, GFS, HWRF, and NAVGEM models)
NOAA's HFIP model comparison page (GFS, ECMWF, FIM, FIM9, UKMET, and CMC models.)
Experimental HFIP models

Quiet in the Atlantic
There are no tropical cyclone threat areas in the Atlantic to discuss today, and none of the reliable models for tropical cyclone formation is predicting development during the coming seven days. I plan on having a detailed update on Friday to discuss the latest long-range forecasts for the coming peak part of hurricane season.

Jeff Masters


The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

Reader Comments

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 336 - 286

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40Blog Index

Quoting 302. Patrap:
Lil or no Damage ?

LOL..one couldnt drive Hwy 90 for 3 weeks where Camille came in at Pass Christian/Long beach.

Dont know where your getting your info from, cuz its dismissive outright with that alone.


Read this

Hurricane Camille Was Not a Category 5 at Landfall
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I would give the disturbance in the eastern Caribbean Sea a better than 20%. Chance of development within the first 48hours, and 40% in more than five days. Wind shear is dying down ahead of the system as the upper level low and associated upper level trough move away to the west shear will continue to decrease.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 257. WalkingInTheSun:
Hmm, we are in a quandry, eh?
There were apparently experts in meteorology who forecasted a certain amount of hurricane activity for this year.
So, if so many now are saying this hurr. season is a bust, that means that either they are wrong now, or the experts who did the initial season forecast are wrong. That means either experts or non-experts have been wrong: choose. Yet, if there are experts on both sides, it means experts have been wrong.

If, then, experts have been wrong, how can we say with confidence that the season is a bust? (Think about it.) Meanwhile, there's a Low swirling towards the Bahamas, moisture levels increasing in the GOM, and I think -- despite the dusty air off the Sahara -- that many can recall not all tropical storms or hurricanes must irrevocably evolve out of an African TW. Right? Of course some -- many -- have formed in the Caribbean, GOM, BOC, & along the Atlantic Coast sort of "out of thin air".


Get out of the sun for a while. You are exhibiting the signs of heat stroke.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 115. Grothar:
Nice blog Doc. I know how the GFS felt with Debbie. I was the only one saying it was going to North Florida. :)

The other wave is looking better.



Don't forget me, I consistently stood by it moving northeast into Florida :)

Some said I just "wanted" it to. However, if you follow my posts, I do my best to separate hype from reality. when I'm confident a system does not pose much risk to my area or elsewhere in Florida, I will make it clear.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 331. Greg01:
328. SuperStorm093
The circle means it is being watched. They do not expect it to develop, but it is being watched nonetheless.
thank you
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
328. SuperStorm093
The circle means it is being watched. They do not expect it to develop, but it is being watched nonetheless.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 329. GTstormChaserCaleb:
Not a good pattern the Gulf is open.

maybe the east coast to
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Not a good pattern the Gulf is open.

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 324. furacao:
Long Time Lurker... don't post often, but I have a case of the smart @$$ today....




Technically, the yellow indicates less than 30%... 0 is less than 30! Sorry... had to do it!

:)


Yeah but that makes no sense, why have it if it has NO chance of development lol, NHC is messing with us.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
BTW- I have learned a lot over the years from this forum... thanks for that!

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
A side note to Camille is this, it happened a month after the Apollo 11 Landing, and a Large portion of those who worked built and tested the First Stage of the Saturn 5 were severely affected.

Every family that was working on Apollo that was affected, were made whole by the Federal Govt as the missions still had 6 more flights to finish.




Sometimes faith is all you have left after a Major.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Long Time Lurker... don't post often, but I have a case of the smart @$$ today....


Quoting 322. SuperStorm093:
Why is there a yellow blob on the NHC website, but has 0 percent lol.


Technically, the yellow indicates less than 30%... 0 is less than 30! Sorry... had to do it!

:)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
LOL at the one guy who had a glass of beer in his hand having a hurricane party. Wonder if he survived?
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Why is there a yellow blob on the NHC website, but has 0 percent lol.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 307. GTstormChaserCaleb:
WOW 212 mph.? That is the equivalence to an EF-5 Tornado, but longer duration event. I think I would have likely been swept away by those winds. Were orders for evacuations issued in those times?


Yeah, way back in the old days in the 1960's they had evacuation orders, those of us who had electricity of course. :)
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 314. Patrap:


The video here tells all about Camille ,even inland.
You know Pat all this time I was thinking Camille was a he. Had a friend in high school named Camille. Thanks for the video watching it now.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
SHEAR is way to high for anything to form in Caribbean right now, that little tiny blob will struggle greatly to form into anything.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
So, if so many now are saying this hurr. season is a bust, that means that either they are wrong now, or the experts who did the initial season forecast are wrong. That means either experts or non-experts have been wrong: choose.

actually....this is a classic mistake made here often....we ask our experts for a forecast...not a prediction...if a forecast doesn't pan out...yet it was correct by the current data available at the time it was made...then how can we claim it is wrong?....what happens here...is we confuse forecast with predictions...anyone can make a prediction..it takes knowledge and science to make a forecast
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 291. opal92nwf:

There's no question Camille was a Cat 5 in the Gulf, it's just at landfall that some think it wasn't

It did have a Cat 5 storm surge, but it's the winds that seem to have been well below Cat 5 level.

That article does a good job showing how the houses that didn't get hit by the storm surge, but still in the core of Camille when it hit, had little or NO wind damage.


By the way. who says that a Cat 4 causes little wind damage? I was in Puerto Rico when Hugo hit the Island as a Cat 4. Culebra island which mountains protect it from the surge was decimate by the winds in that hurricane. And building codes in Puerto Rico are designed with hurricanes in their minds. You could not find a concrete structure standing.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Just checked some models, stil nothing really, all still shows some little developments, but not really.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 306. SuperStorm093:
Just got on guys, anything new with models or showing any storms?
Hey, pretty much the same, GFS came in a little stronger with the Western Caribbean system and now shows a 999 mb. storm in the Central Atlantic at the end of the run.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 307. GTstormChaserCaleb:
WOW 212 mph.? That is the equivalence to an EF-5 Tornado, but longer duration event. I think I would have likely been swept away by those winds. Were orders for evacuations issued in those times?


The video here tells all about Camille ,even inland.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Surface circulation forming in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Convection is developing with it, and cu field shows an arcing field of low level clouds.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 291. opal92nwf:

There's no question Camille was a Cat 5 in the Gulf, it's just at landfall that some think it wasn't

It did have a Cat 5 storm surge, but it's the winds that seem to have been well below Cat 5 level.

That article does a good job showing how the houses that didn't get hit by the storm surge, but still in the core of Camille when it hit, had little or NO wind damage.


There was very much major wind damage here in Hattiesburg after Camille went through, some 60 miles from the coast. That pretty much debunks that no wind damage on the coast theory. Lol.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 268. opal92nwf:
This is the only direct tropical cyclone strike I have experienced since I have become interested in hurricanes.

I stayed up till like 3am in the morning to watch the partial eyewall of Claudette go right over my house. I thought I had seen some intense wind storms in Illinois, but Claudette gave me a glimpse of what a tropical cyclone was like.

It was eerie because not too long before the partial eyewall came up from the south, I saw a big flash to the south which must have been a electrical flash. And then when the eyewall did come, I witnessed 50+ sustained winds. You could hear a gust coming in advance and when the winds got high enough at a certain point, it made an weird whooshing noise through the trees like I had never heard. And this was just a 50mph tropical storm....
I will make a blog post soon of pictures of the damage afterwards from Claudette with a more detailed description of my experience.

I was just in the partial eyewall of Andrea. Last year I was in Debby.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I think this Autumn will resemble 1951 and 1962. Those Autumns were cool and crisp!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Camille Damage, Mississippi



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Believe the system of the west coast of Florida is a continuation of the one down in the Caribbean.


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 297. Patrap:
I can assure you with complete confidence Camille was a Cat 5,,as the anemometer at the Seabee Base at the end of Pass Road broke at 212mph Sustained...when it failed.

Still the Highest wind recorded in Camille.

Keesler AFB anemometer failed on the runway tower at sustained 167 mph, 22 minutes earlier.


WOW 212 mph.? That is the equivalence to an EF-5 Tornado, but longer duration event. I think I would have likely been swept away by those winds. Were orders for evacuations issued in those times?
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Just got on guys, anything new with models or showing any storms?
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 297. Patrap:
I can assure you with complete confidence Camille was a Cat 5,,as the anemometer at the Seabee Base at the end of Pass Road broke at 212mph Sustained...when it failed.

Still the Highest wind recorded in Camille.

Keesler AFB anemometer failed on the runway tower at sustained 167 mph, 22 minutes earlier.




That's evidence you can't deny, not sure why anyone would try to out of respect for those who lost their lives and had their lives turned upside down because of that storm.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 291. opal92nwf:

There's no question Camille was a Cat 5 in the Gulf, it's just at landfall that some think it wasn't

It did have a Cat 5 storm surge, but it's the winds that seem to have been well below Cat 5 level.

That article does a good job showing how the houses that didn't get hit by the storm surge, but still in the core of Camille when it hit, had little or NO wind damage.


I think that's foolish nevertheless. A category 5 downgraded to 4 still has the energy of the 5 just like when Katrina hit MS. To me it was a Category 5 no matter what they call it officially. It is not the same to have a Cat 3 Upgraded to 4 than a Cat 5 Downgraded to 4 The latter will always be stronger, especially when it is as huge as Katrina was. Camille's destruction is still visible here on the MS Coast and there is evidence of wind damage still present.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 265. Patrap:
..ticking away the moments that make up a dull day...




...Tired of lying in the sunshine. Staying home to watch the rain.



It's a cloudy and soon-to-be rainy day here in Northern Colorado. Wish I was staying home to watch the rain, but will have to be content to watch it from the office window...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Lil or no Damage ?

LOL..one couldnt drive Hwy 90 for 3 weeks where Camille came in at Pass Christian/Long beach.

Dont know where your getting your info from, cuz its dismissive outright with that alone.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
A little tidbit from NWS MLB's facebook:



A late week "Tutt" low will bring drying aloft Thu with less rainfall coverage, but stronger storms are possible as temps aloft cool a little. Also the drier air overlaying moist air is more unstable. As the Tutt low passes south of the area Fri, deeper moisture will move in and bring higher rain chances.

"Tutt" stands for Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough. These mid/upper level cold lows typically move west/southwest in the subtropics this time of the year. Though this feature will pass to our south, it will be the dominant player in our weather through late week.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Lesser Antilles showing possible circulation center inside the eastern Caribbean Sea. Winds are out of the south and southeast behind the circulation.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
384 hrs. ah yes the Tempo setter in the Atlantic with that one forming and actually strengthening as it pulls away from land the rest that come after should have no problem atall.

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 291. opal92nwf:

There's no question Camille was a Cat 5 in the Gulf, it's just at landfall that some think it wasn't

It did have a Cat 5 storm surge, but it's the winds that seem to have been well below Cat 5 level.

That article does a good job showing how the houses that didn't get hit by the storm surge, but still in the core of Camille when it hit, had little or NO wind damage.


And this why I think a storm's classification should be based on a combination of winds, storm surge and potential for damage by either at landfall.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I can assure you with complete confidence Camille was a Cat 5,,as the anemometer at the Seabee Base at the end of Pass Road broke at 212mph Sustained...when it failed.

Still the Highest wind recorded in Camille.

Keesler AFB anemometer failed on the runway tower at sustained 167 mph, 22 minutes earlier.


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hi all! Greetings from Anchorage, AK. It is a dreary 58 degrees and raining. I won't complain though, the area desperately needed it. I have learned so much about how the mountains block fronts, keep fronts stationary, and sometimes make their own weather. Considering that Alaska is actually a rain forest...they have only had 4/10ths of an inch in measurable rain in several weeks. Weather patterns have changed and we can expect four or five days of rain. It is nice to see things perk up. I am still learning from the masters...yeah you guys...about weather but now I find that I am more aware of things weather related than I was before. I will try to post pictures on here soon of everything. Have a great day guys and gals!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 278. GTstormChaserCaleb:
Bonnie 2004 is that you? ;) Now we look for trends and more models jumping onboard. FIM has been consistent, GFS slowly coming around to the idea.



Levi's been saying to watch the western Caribbean for a while.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 290. Tropicsweatherpr:
What did 12z GFS had on long range?
Couple of storms storming up the Atlantic storming around showing off their storminess :).
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
The Richelieu Apts was laid waste to slab by Camilles surge.



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
GFS shows another fish in the atlantic. just great
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 274. Patrap:
Anyway thinking of downgrading Camille is a fool.

Many of us were there,in it,,and saw the 24 ft water marks in the Broadwater Beach Hotel.

So give that thought a rest.

There's no question Camille was a Cat 5 in the Gulf, it's just at landfall that some think it wasn't

It did have a Cat 5 storm surge, but it's the winds that seem to have been well below Cat 5 level.

That article does a good job showing how the houses that didn't get hit by the storm surge, but still in the core of Camille when it hit, had little or NO wind damage.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
What did 12z GFS had on long range?
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 273. StormTrackerScott:


An anomaly. Not very often do you get that big cold outbreak in August.


Well I welcome that anomaly with open arms. Heat down in the south has been almost unbearable.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 284. washingtonian115:
No.It's because it looks like a weak low pressure area.Hardly anything worthy of being called a tropical storm.Loks very shallow.
I think because it links up with the front and gets sheared. Regardless I just want something to track and I like the rainfall we have been getting here along the West Coast of FL. why stop now? There is only more good than harm and my yard looks green for once, in stark contrast to last year at this time when it was brown.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
CHECK THIS OUT...................
TAMPA --
A Bay area man is recovering after being bitten by a shark in the Bahamas last week.

Erik Norrie, a Largo resident, was spearfishing with his family on July 29 between Great Guana Cay and Scotland Cay near Abaco Island.

Norrie, 40, said he had just speared a grouper when he felt something come up behind him. The shark, believed to be a 6-foot reef shark, bit his lower left calf.

He managed to get back to the boat and was rushed back to land. Norrie said he managed to keep calm during the episode, which he thinks may have helped him survive.

"You know, I've had a lot of close encounters with sharks," Norrie said. "But generally speaking, you can kind of tap them with your spear or push them away from you and they don't generally bother you. But in this case, he got me."

Norrie had a tourniquet applied and was flown to a Miami hospital. He was transported to Tampa General last week.

Norrie, who has had well-wishers and family and friends visit once he returned home, even got a plastic shark as a gift.

He said the encounter won't stop him from enjoying the water, adding it's a risk you take when you go spearfishing.








Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
Quoting 274. Patrap:
Anyway thinking of downgrading Camille is a fool.

Many of us were there,in it,,and saw the 24 ft water marks in the Broadwater Beach Hotel.

So give that thought a rest.

www.csc.noaa.gov/hes/docs/postStorm/H_CAMILLE.pdf


And what was the hotel where they had a hurricane party that was completely gone after Camille? Wasn't that 3 or 4 stories tall?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 336 - 286

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40Blog Index

Top of Page

Category 6™

About

Cat 6 lead authors: WU cofounder Dr. Jeff Masters (right), who flew w/NOAA Hurricane Hunters 1986-1990, & WU meteorologist Bob Henson, @bhensonweather