Are We Entering a New Period of Rapid Global Warming?

By: Bob Henson , 5:04 PM GMT on February 24, 2015

Residents of New England may understandably look back at 2015 as the year of their never-ending winter. For the planet as a whole, though, this year could stand out most for putting to rest the “hiatus”— the 15-year slowdown in atmospheric warming that gained intense scrutiny by pundits, scientists, and the public. While interesting in its own right, the hiatus garnered far more attention than it deserved as a purported sign that future global warming would be much less than expected. The slowdown was preceded by almost 20 years of dramatic global temperature rise, and with 2014 having set a new global record high, there are signs that another decade-plus period of intensified atmospheric warming may be at our doorstep.

The most compelling argument for a renewed surge in global air temperature is rooted in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). This index tracks the fingerprint of sea surface temperature (SST) across the Pacific north of 20°N. A closely related index, the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), covers a larger swath of the entire Pacific. Both the PDO and IPO capture back-and-forth swings in the geography of Pacific SSTs that affect the exchange of heat between ocean and atmosphere (see Figure 1). We’ll use PDO as shorthand for both indexes in the following discussion.

The PDO typically leans toward a positive or negative state for more than a decade at a time. The positive phase, which features warmer-than-average SSTs along the U.S. West Coast, was dominant from the mid-1970s to the late 1990s. The PDO then flipped to a negative phase between about 1999 and 2013, with cooler-than-average SSTs along the West Coast. Figure 2 shows that even when a particular mode is favored, the PDO can still flip back to its opposite mode for periods of a few months or so.


Figure 1. Departures from average sea-surface temperature (degrees C) and wind (arrows) that typically prevail when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is in its positive mode (left) and negative mode (right). Image credit: University of Washington.


It’s not clear exactly what drives the PDO, but in some ways it can be viewed as a geographically expanded version of the SST patterns created by El Niño and La Niña, averaged over a longer time period. (See Figure 2.) It’s well-established that El Niño can raise global temperature for a few months by several tenths of a degree Celsius, as warm water spreads over the eastern tropical Pacific and mixes with the overlying atmosphere. Likewise, La Niña can act to pull down global average temperature, as cooler-than-average water extends further west than usual across the tropical Pacific. The PDO mirrors these trends, but over longer periods. When the PDO is positive, there are more El Niño and fewer La Niña events, and heat stored in the ocean tends to be spread across a larger surface area, allowing it to enter the atmosphere more easily. When the PDO is negative, SSTs are below average across a larger area, and global air temperatures tend to be lower.


Figure 2. Typical warm and cool anomalies in sea-surface temperature during positive PDO years (left) and El Niño years (right). The patterns are similar, though with differences in intensity over some regions. The anomalies are reversed for negative PDO and La Niña years. Image credit: University of Washington Climate Impacts Group.


Figure 3 shows a striking connection between favored PDO modes (top) and global air temperature anomalies (bottom). The vast majority of atmospheric warming over the last century occurred during positive PDO phases, with negative PDOs tending to result in flat temperature trends. It’s easy to see how an atmospheric warming “hiatus” could occur during a negative PDO phase.


Figure 3. PDO values (top) and global air temperature anomalies (bottom). Gray shading indicates positive PDO periods, when atmospheric warming was most evident. The NOAA PDO values shown here vary slightly from those discussed in the article, which are calculated by the University of Washington. Image credit: Jerimiah Brown, Weather Underground. Data sources:NOAA (top) and NOAA/NCDC (bottom).


From the AMS meeting
The hiatus was discussed at length in a series of talks during the annual meeting of the American Meteorological Society last month in Phoenix. Jerry Meehl, from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (my former employer), gave a whirlwind 15-minute overview of hiatus-oriented research conducted over the last six years. Meehl’s talk can be viewed online. More than 20 papers have studied the hiatus and its links to the PDO/IPO, according to Matthew England (University of New South Wales). Most of the flattening of global temperature during the hiatus can be traced to cooler-than-average conditions over the eastern tropical Pacific, which pulled down global averages. An emerging theme is that natural, or internal, variability in the tropical Pacific can explain at least half of the hiatus. NCAR’s Clara Deser presented new modeling evidence along these lines (see video online). Other factors may be involved as well, including a series of weak volcanic eruptions that could explain a small part of the hiatus, according to a recent analysis by Ben Santer (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory).

One crucial point is that global warming didn’t “stop” during the hiatus: the world’s oceans actually gained heat at an accelerated pace. Trade winds blew more strongly from east to west across the Pacific, consistent with the tendency toward La Niña conditions, as described in this open-access article by NCAR’s Kevin Trenberth and John Fasullo. Over parts of the central tropical Pacific, trade winds averaged about 3 mph stronger during 1999-2012 compared to 1976-1988. These speeds are higher than for any previous hiatus on record, bolstering the idea that other factors may have joined this negative PDO/IPO phase. The faster trade winds encouraged upwelling of cooler water to the east and helped deepen and strengthen the warm pool to the west—enough, in fact, to raise sea level around the Philippines by as much as 8 inches. Other parts of the deep ocean warmed as well. A new study led by Dean Roemmich (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) maps the areas of greatest ocean heating from 2006 to 2013 and finds that significant warming extended to depths of greater than 6600 feet.

What next for the PDO?
The PDO index, as calculated at the University of Washington, scored positive values during every month in 2014, the first such streak since 2003. By December it reached +2.51, the largest positive value for any December in records that go back to 1900. The January value from UW was 2.45, again a monthly record. (NOAA calculates its own PDO values through a closely related methodology.)

Because the PDO can flip modes for a year or more within its longer-term cycle, we don’t yet know whether a significant shift to a positive PDO phase has begun. If trade winds weaken throughout this year, and positive PDO values persist, that’ll be strong evidence that a new cycle is indeed under way. The last time we saw a two-year streak of positive values was in 1992-93. If this occurs, and assuming no spikes in major volcanic activity, we could expect greater rises in global temperature over the next 10 to 15 years than we’ve seen during the hiatus. In addition, we should watch for El Niño to make its presence known more often.

“I am inclined to think the hiatus is over, mainly based on the PDO index change,” NCAR’s Kevin Trenberth told me. While Matthew England isn’t ready to offer such a prediction, he emphasized that any post-hiatus global temperature rise is likely to be fairly rapid. Trenberth also commented on an interesting NOAA analysis (see Figure 4): “If one takes the global mean temperature from 1970 on, everything fits a linear trend quite well except 1998.”


Figure 4. When looking at global temperature over a full PDO cycle (1970s to 2010s), the overall rise becomes evident, despite the flattening observed in the last 15 years. Image credit: NOAA.


A record-strong El Niño occurred in 1998, providing an unusually powerful boost to global temperature and fueling years of subsequent declarations that “global warming stopped in 1998.” The record warmth of 2014 made it clear that global warming has no intention of stopping, and the next few years are likely to reinforce that point. Nevertheless, snowbound New Englanders, and millions of other easterners now dealing with record cold for so late in the year, may be wondering why eastern North America has seen so much cold and snow in the past few winters--especially this one--and how long that climatic quirk might continue. Stay tuned for a separate post on that topic.

Bob Henson


The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

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it always deluges over storm tracker nothing here no fog either twc e cen fl.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
192. txjac
Quoting 177. Skyepony:

GEOS=-5 still on some severe weather for the southeast for Thursday..



Kind of thinking of taking that tax return extra & investing in a few grid tied panels.. Hard to say how much was wasted there. It's so easy & a practice of many that go this road to reinvest the savings into more renewable saving. Everything renewable I've invested in for the home ultimately pays for itself & pays me for saving or making energy.

Good for you

Unfortunately many home owners association dont allow for solar ...crazy huh?
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Quoting 183. KEEPEROFTHEGATE:



dive bomber incoming
B.C. Bomber.
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Quoting win1gamegiantsplease:


I noticed at lunchtime there was still sleet falling with the freezing rain (snow stopped around 8), and as of almost 6 PM we're still at 32 degrees and still raining. Judging by the pine needles I'd say there's in between .10-.20" right now and might hit a quarter of an inch as this thing wraps up, which looks like it should be by 8 PM.
I don't know. It's kind of hard to tell with a sideways iPhone picture but I'd guess more like a tenth of an inch tops. A quarter inch is when big limbs come crashing down and power lines fail. If you haven't seen (or heard) any of that then you're probably not near a quarter. How long is it forecast to last? Only two more hours there? Hmm. Seems like it's just hanging right along the coast in no hurry to go swimming. :-)
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repost larger image
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Jedkins..stay alert up there tomorrow etc..could be some mean storms around your area up there
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1. Severe Storms Possible on Wednesday
A low pressure system will develop over the northern Gulf waters Tuesday night into Wednesday. As this system crosses our area Wednesday afternoon through the evening, we will see thunderstorms and moderate to heavy rainfall. Some of the storms could have the potential to produce severe wind gusts (58+ MPH) or an isolated tornado.
•Main hazards: Isolated damaging winds and tornadoes
•Main impacts: Sporadic tree and power line damage with the strongest storms
•Timing: The line of storms will reach Panama City Wednesday afternoon, reaching Tallahassee and Valdosta early in the evening.
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I'm going to take a leap here and say that winter Storm "Quantum" could cover a lot of territory.


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dive bomber incoming
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Quoting DCSwithunderscores:


At least I haven't heard anyone claim that flora and fauna are in on the conspiracy. Flora and fauna are shifting towards the poles or higher on mountains. Migratory birds are migrating earlier in spring. Floral blooming time in spring has been trending earlier.
Well, no, it's the people digging up those plants and moving them further north that are in on it. :-0

You know, it's vaguely possible that AGW will turn out to be wrong. We'll know for sure in 50 years or so. It doesn't seem very likely it's completely wrong, but there's a non-zero chance it could be. Still, just based on how conspiracies really operate, how is it possible that tens of thousands of researchers and scientists from all over the world could possibly keep up with the conspiracy? e-mail? Twitter? And how do they get paid off? Direct deposit? Money behind the fourth tree on the left? Scientists in general aren't the most well-organized and gregarious bunch, so it would be really hard to recruit all these people. I just keep thinking back to one conspiracy we know really did exist, involving a President and his extracurricular activities. He was the most powerful man in the world, had the biggest spy and intelligence agencies at his beck and call, and probably had a direct line the the CFR and the Illuminati. Still, that whole thing didn't work out too well. If he couldn't make that work, look at some AMS meeting videos of the audience and see if you think they'd do better. ;-)
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This is from 3:30 today, it's sideways because iPhone.

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Quoting 173. Skyepony:

I've had .05" here in Melbourne, FL & a little thunder earlier, so far today. Wunderground's Bestcast actually had me down with a chance of Thunderstorms & 0.21" of rain..that so far has outperformed NWS's forecast for the day. Got the farm ready for a few days of rain.
tomorrow evening-Thursday morning is when we need to stay alert.
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Link
My forecast on Winter Storm Remus.
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177. Skyepony (Mod)
GEOS=-5 still on some severe weather for the southeast for Thursday..


Quoting 170. Skyepony:

Granted it fattened my tax return this year but there is no more need to pipe oil to heat my water..

Kind of thinking of taking that tax return extra & investing in a few grid tied panels.. Hard to say how much was wasted there. It's so easy & a practice of many that go this road to reinvest the savings into more renewable saving. Everything renewable I've invested in for the home ultimately pays for itself & pays me for saving or making energy.
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Quoting 160. sar2401:

I don't want to sound cruel but I'm glad it's you and not me. I've been through enough ice storms to last me more than a lifetime. Do you have a flashlight and extra batteries? It sounds like you're going to need it.


I noticed at lunchtime there was still sleet falling with the freezing rain (snow stopped around 8), and as of almost 6 PM we're still at 32 degrees and still raining. Judging by the pine needles I'd say there's in between .10-.20" right now and might hit a quarter of an inch as this thing wraps up, which looks like it should be by 8 PM.
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Quoting 173. Skyepony:

I've had .05" here in Melbourne, FL & a little thunder earlier, so far today. Wunderground's Bestcast actually had me down with a chance of Thunderstorms & 0.21" of rain..that so far has outperformed NWS's forecast for the day. Got the farm ready for a few days of rain.
I would love a few days of rain I am about ready to send old man winter packing till next winter I am just about done not much more
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What a great blog topic! I didn't know much about the PDO and it's influence on regional and global temperatures, but now I know a bit more. It is always nice to hear things explained and identified with evidence rather than mystery cycles.
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173. Skyepony (Mod)
I've had .05" here in Melbourne, FL & a little thunder earlier, so far today. Wunderground's Bestcast actually had me down with a chance of Thunderstorms & 0.21" of rain..that so far has outperformed NWS's forecast for the day. Got the farm ready for a few days of rain.
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Quoting 169. jpsb:



Please explain why this has anything to do with the topic of Mr Masters/Bob Henson post. TIA
oil it has nothing to do with anything move along nothing to see here we are in control
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Just went out and measured ice accretion of a quarter of an inch on several branches. We're still seeing freezing rain here, but it should begin to wind down over the next hour or two. I can hear some trees cracking out back, but everything is faring a lot better than last February when we picked up just under three quarters of an inch of ice.
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170. Skyepony (Mod)
A few hour old Terra-L1B pass of 14S Glenda..


Quoting 166. txjac:



We attempted to focus a bit on renewables ...and wasted a bunch of money


Granted it fattened my tax return this year but there is no more need to pipe oil to heat my water..
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Quoting 152. Naga5000:



If I remember correctly, they have been burning off a lot of the natural gas since the North Dakota rush, is this still happening?

only about 30% used if I rem. It's not dirty and needs a lot of processing like some they flare (though micro turbines can use that), it's just they don't have capacity to get it out.

We did make it above freezing, wind gusts a little closer to 30 now, more variable W to S instead of straight SW, pressure now below 29.9"
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166. txjac
Quoting 153. tampabaymatt:



I see your point. I wasn’t aware that oil pipelines spill more oil than trucks. My point was more from an efficiency perspective. Seems more efficient to transport oil via a pipeline than hauling it in trucks. I just wish our Congress was preparing legislation focused on renewable energy and not oil pipelines. Sigh


We attempted to focus a bit on renewables ...and wasted a bunch of money
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Quoting 155. DCSwithunderscores:



At least I haven't heard anyone claim that flora and fauna are in on the conspiracy. Flora and fauna are shifting towards the poles or higher on mountains. Migratory birds are migrating earlier in spring. Floral blooming time in spring has been trending earlier.
Yep..Someone on here stated that warming is a good thing , especially for agriculture....in reality, thats not the case..Excerpt from WIKI...

Shorter winters and longer growing seasons may appear to be a benefit to society from global warming, but the effects of advanced phenophases may also have serious consequences for human populations. Modeling of snowmelt predicted that warming of 3° to 5°C in the Western United States could cause snowmelt-driven runoff to occur as much as two months earlier, with profound effects on hydroelectricity, land use, agriculture, and water management. Since 1980, earlier snowmelt and associated warming has also been associated with an increase in length and severity of the wildfire season there.

Season creep may also have adverse affects on plant species as well. Earlier flowering could occur before pollinators such as honey bees become active, which would have negative consequences for pollination and reproduction. Shorter and warmer winters may affect other environmental adaptations including cold hardening of trees, which could result in frost damage during more severe winters.

On average, Europe has spring a full week earlier than 30 years ago. China has numerous occurrences associated with season creep.
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Quoting tampabaymatt:


The wife just reported no measurable rain at my home gauge for today. Everything appears all wet/damp though because of the fog and generally soupy air mass that's been in place for the last 2+ days. Based on the latest NWS report, it doesn't seem likely I'll get anything for today.
No, it's pretty much done for you. The little low that moved along the stationary front has dissipated and taken most of the energy with it. However, if the low in the Gulf (which I'm still waiting to see actual evidence of) tracks along the stationary front, which should then start to lift north as a warm front, you could get some pretty good rain...or not. This coming storm is the most highly advertised for us since the big January storm of last year. If the low tracks just 100 miles south of the predicted track, it has major bust potential. But we have to see it form first and become respectable. Then we might know more.

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163. txjac
Quoting 156. CarolinaHurricanes87:



Oil companies' greed knows no bounds.


I wouldnt say that so much ...check out who "owns" the trains ...
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Quoting LAbonbon:

Wholly agree!. And the issue with polluted waterways not fit for human consumption is something that seems to get overlooked. Waste in/theft from the existing lines gets mentioned a lot, but the polluted surface waters are the real tragedy, IMHO.
There's also the problem of poorly maintained, leaky reservoirs along with the rampant water theft once it gets out of the reservoirs. You can see on the map you posted that the surrounding states, which haven't had any more rain than Sao Paulo, are not in such dire straits. None of them are full, but none of them are at 5%. Decades of massive corruption have allowed industries to dump pollutants into the upstream rivers, and all that crud is now coming to the surface, making what little is left unusable for domestic water. As usual, it's the ordinary people who are suffering under the weight of corruption and now a terrible water shortage. You can bet the political and financial elite will get water from somewhere. I'm a die hard capitalist but, in this case, a few public hangings would have a salutatory effect.
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Quoting 51. StormTrackerScott:

Raining very hard here in Longwood.




The wife just reported no measurable rain at my home gauge for today. Everything appears all wet/damp though because of the fog and generally soupy air mass that's been in place for the last 2+ days. Based on the latest NWS report, it doesn't seem likely I'll get anything for today.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Upgraded to an Ice Storm Warning here. It's been pouring freezing rain here since about 10am. The ice is starting to weigh down tree limbs.

I don't want to sound cruel but I'm glad it's you and not me. I've been through enough ice storms to last me more than a lifetime. Do you have a flashlight and extra batteries? It sounds like you're going to need it.
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Quoting tampabaymatt:


Why would they still use trains if there was a pipeline in place? I don't get it.
The problem is that very few crude pipelines terminate on the East Coast. It's impossible to get the right of way for a pipeline in densely populated sections of the country. WE need the refineries back east because the Gulf Coast refineries don't have the capacity. More pipelines terminate there but there hasn't been a new refinery built there since 1977, when Garyville LA was built. The refineries have upgraded capacity but it's not keeping pace with refineries that have lost capacity due to equipment age or just closed down since 1977. There's a couple of new refineries being built close to the oil fields in North Dakota but they are tiny compared to major downstream refineries like Garyville. Even if they were larger, we'd still need trains to transport refined product. The railroads overall have an excellent safety record transporting both crude and refined products. We hear and see news about things like the West Virginia derailment because they are relatively rare and spectacular when they happen. A pipeline leaked 50,000 barrels into Yellowstone River a couple of months ago and almost no one knows about it. No fire, no explosions, no news crews.
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Quoting 152. Naga5000:



If I remember correctly, they have been burning off a lot of the natural gas since the North Dakota rush, is this still happening?



Yup.

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Quoting 146. hydrus:

Howdy Bon...Some similarities between the Brazilian drought, and the drought occurring out west. Both are similar in severity and number of years going without substantial rainfall. Brazil has a more serious issue due to pollution. Much of the water that could have been used for drinking is toxic , and cannot be used for human consumption. Another hurdle the will face is that 70% of the electricity generated is hydropower. Energy rationing will be in place if it is not already.

Wholly agree!. And the issue with polluted waterways not fit for human consumption is something that seems to get overlooked. Waste in/theft from the existing lines gets mentioned a lot, but the polluted surface waters are the real tragedy, IMHO.
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Quoting 134. tampabaymatt:



Why would they still use trains if there was a pipeline in place? I don't get it.


Oil companies' greed knows no bounds.
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Quoting 52. LAbonbon:

# 46 - MoeHoward

Baseless accusations and ridiculous allegations of massive conspiracies may be acceptable on other sites...but here? Not so much.


At least I haven't heard anyone claim that flora and fauna are in on the conspiracy. Flora and fauna are shifting towards the poles or higher on mountains. Migratory birds are migrating earlier in spring. Floral blooming time in spring has been trending earlier.
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Quoting 153. tampabaymatt:



I see your point. I wasn’t aware that oil pipelines spill more oil than trucks. My point was more from an efficiency perspective. Seems more efficient to transport oil via a pipeline than hauling it in trucks. I just wish our Congress was preparing legislation focused on renewable energy and not oil pipelines. Sigh


I'm there with you. I'm not naive enough to think that we will just snap and be off fossil fuels, but I don't think building another pipeline across one of the most important aquifers in the country is in our long term best interest either. I don't think there are any good answers, just better and worse.
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Quoting 143. Naga5000:



The Keystone XL would run from Canada's tar sands to Texas...I wasn't aware West Virginia, the site of the last trail derailment and oil screw up, was along that route. :)

Unless you want oil pipelines everywhere. Oil pipelines spill more oil than trains over comparable distances. Pick your poison I suppose.


I see your point. I wasn’t aware that oil pipelines spill more oil than trucks. My point was more from an efficiency perspective. Seems more efficient to transport oil via a pipeline than hauling it in trucks. I just wish our Congress was preparing legislation focused on renewable energy and not oil pipelines. Sigh
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Quoting 144. dabirds:

Could use more out of ND though, esp gas. They don't need State Dept approval for those. If they are so worried about pipeline construction jobs they really should be working on that instead, but... And, that's US oil & gas that pays taxes, royalties, leases,etc. here, would think that should be more of a priority. Maybe build a few gas generating stations to back up wind power out there too, along w/ transmission lines to tie to major grids. Sounds like a few construction jobs, and probably more than 35 permanent ones as well. We'll need that gas if some old coal plants go off line as expected. I guess that doesn't fit the anti agenda though.


If I remember correctly, they have been burning off a lot of the natural gas since the North Dakota rush, is this still happening?
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Quoting tampabaymatt:
Rats! Looks like my 2.55" migrated to the Atlantic. I'm currently at 1.05" since Sunday. It's not going rain today so I need to 1.50" tomorrow to match the WPC forecast. Depending on the track of the low, it could happen, Depending on the track of the low, it might not happen. At least there's not going to be an ice storm...yet. :-)
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its look like a ice storm to me
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Quoting 106. jpsb:



I will get back to you tomorrow on that. But for now lets just say I am a luke warmest, not a true believer. I get treaty badly by the hard core skeptics too. lol.


So basically you're saying, "I don't know". If you don't know, why don't you just listen to scientists?... You know, the people whose job it is to figure out stuff like that?
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beginning march 1st 2015


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Officials work to document the accident and clear wreckage at the scene after a major pileup involving more than 2 dozen vehicles closed Interstate 40 eastbound traffic near Hope Road, 10 miles west of Amarillo, Texas, Monday, Feb. 23, 2015.
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Quoting 97. LAbonbon:

From an earlier blog (to re-show the Sao Paulo Reservoir situation graphic)

From The Telegraph:

Taps run dry in Brazil's biggest city as drought bites
It may have the world's biggest water supply and the seventh biggest economy, but that's not enough to keep water running during the country's worst dry stretch since the 1930s

By Donna Bowater, São Paulo 7:00AM GMT 23 Feb 2015

Ediane Marquis is in a rush to leave work at an infant school in the east of São Paulo.

It is the afternoon in Brazil's commercial capital, and she knows her mother-in-law will be without water as the city struggles with its worst drought on record.

"The water goes off at 1pm and comes back on the next day," said Mrs Marquis, 51. "Her bathroom and utility area are connected to the mains supply so she has to come to my house. It's changed her life, it's changed everything."

So far, she said, the nursery where she works has managed to stay open but schools, universities and hospitals are having to adapt to cope with reduced water supplies.

With the lowest rainfall since 1930, reservoirs that supply almost half of the 20 million people in the metropolitan area - including the financial district - are close to running dry.

Doctors have reportedly had to cut short dialysis for patients with kidney failure because of the shortage while schools have introduced water-saving measures to avoid suspending lessons.
Read full article


Howdy Bon...Some similarities between the Brazilian drought, and the drought occurring out west. Both are similar in severity and number of years going without substantial rainfall. Brazil has a more serious issue due to pollution. Much of the water that could have been used for drinking is toxic , and cannot be used for human consumption. Another hurdle the will face is that 70% of the electricity generated is hydropower. Energy rationing will be in place if it is not already.
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Quoting 128. Naga5000:



They would still use trains...piepline or not. We have lots of gas and oil pipelines:





Existing 'Keystone' Pipelines, as well as proposed (point of controversy):


(From Wiki)

Map showing crude oil pipelines from Canadian Tar Sands:

(Source)


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Quoting 128. Naga5000:



They would still use trains...piepline or not. We have lots of gas and oil pipelines:




Could use more out of ND though, esp gas. They don't need State Dept approval for those. If they are so worried about pipeline construction jobs they really should be working on that instead, but... And, that's US oil & gas that pays taxes, royalties, leases,etc. here, would think that should be more of a priority. Maybe build a few gas generating stations to back up wind power out there too, along w/ transmission lines to tie to major grids. Sounds like a few construction jobs, and probably more than 35 permanent ones as well. We'll need that gas if some old coal plants go off line as expected. I guess that doesn't fit the anti agenda though.
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Quoting 134. tampabaymatt:



Why would they still use trains if there was a pipeline in place? I don't get it.


The Keystone XL would run from Canada's tar sands to Texas...I wasn't aware West Virginia, the site of the last trail derailment and oil screw up, was along that route. :)

Unless you want oil pipelines everywhere. Oil pipelines spill more oil than trains over comparable distances. Pick your poison I suppose.
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Cat 6 lead authors: WU cofounder Dr. Jeff Masters (right), who flew w/NOAA Hurricane Hunters 1986-1990, & WU meteorologist Bob Henson, @bhensonweather