Patrap's WunderBlog

Back to Apollo

By: Patrap, 9:53 PM GMT on April 28, 2008

Hurricane Preparation Blog Entry Link


After the Final Space Shuttle Flight in 2010-11.America will be bringing a new Space Vehicle on-line. The Orion/Ares Project will be our new access to Low earth Orbit.
And eventually back to Lunar Orbit and the Lunar Surface.

Those over 45 may remember the Look of the Orion Spacecraft is very Similar to that of the Apollo Spacecraft.

A Good design that brought every American Home safely from Earth orbit and the Moon.



ARES I

Operational Ares I Shown on New Mobile Launcher (NASA)

Ares I, a classic example of a government-funded and managed launch vehicle program, is expected to become the third human space launcher developed entirely by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).[1] Ares I is being developed to do just one job - launch the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. Orion is planned to carry on NASA's human spaceflight efforts after Space Shuttle is retired in 2010.

As currently envisioned, the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle will consist of a five-segment solid propellant first stage derived from Space Shuttle's four-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB) topped by an all-new liquid hydrogen/oxygen upper stage. The upper stage will be powered by a new J-2X upper stage engine derived, in part, from the J-2 engine used on Apollo/Saturn upper stages and the simplified J-2S engine developed but never flown.

Mission requirements call for the two-stage launch vehicle to be capable of inserting a 23.63 tonne Orion spacecraft into a -55.56 x 185.2 km x 28.5 deg suborbital trajectory. This will aim the spent Ares I second stage toward an Indian Ocean impact while Orion fires its service module engine to complete the ascent to orbit. A service module burn at first apogee would need to provide 73.2 meters per second of additional velocity to circularize the orbit at 185.2 km, which is roughly the same as the "OMS-2" burn used to complete the space shuttle ascent to orbit.

Ares I Description

The Ares I/Orion stack is expected to weigh about 906 tonnes at liftoff and stand more than 94 meters to the tip of the launch abort system mast. The launch vehicle itself will be about 79.4 meters from its base to the top of its Instrument Unit. The first stage will be 3.71 meters in diameter, the upper stage 5.5 meters in diameter, and the Orion spacecraft will be 5 meters in diameter.

The first stage will produce roughly 1,600 tonnes of thrust at liftoff and will average 1,245 tonnes of thrust during its roughly 130 second burn. Approximately 630 tonnes of polybutadiene acrylonitride (PBAN) solid propellant will be consumed during the burn. The movable RSRB nozzle will provide pitch and yaw control while a new monopropellant roll control system located in the interstage will control vehicle roll during the first stage burn.

First stage separation will occur at roughly 59 km at a velocity of about 2,024 meters per second. Booster separation motors will back the stage away from the upper stage and interstage, tumble motors will cause it to enter a slow spin, and the tapered frustum section at the top of the stage will separate. The stage will reach a 99 km apogee before beginning its descent. A drogue chute will begin to deploy when the RSRB passes 4.6 km, having already been slowed by the atmosphere to a speed of about 195 meters per second. The stage will impact the Atlantic Ocean under a triple ringsail main chute canopy about 7 minutes 45 seconds after liftoff.

A cylindrical interstage will connect the RSRB and upper stages. It will be composed of composite materials, marking the first large-scale use of a composite structural element in a U.S. human-rated launch vehicle. The interstage will contain important propulsion elements, including the first stage roll control system, the booster separation motors (the 8.39 tonne thrust motors currently located in the RSRB nose), and two interstage separation systems. Current plans call for the roll control system to use monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Thrust will be produced by the decomposition of hydrazine as it passes through a catalyst bed.

The upper stage J-2X engine will burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen for about 463 seconds, producing 133 tonnes of thrust at a 448 second vacuum specific impulse. A 125 tonne thrust J-2XD version may be used for initial flights. Velocity at shutdown will be somewhere in the range of 7,800 meters per second.

The J-2X engine will swivel to provide pitch and yaw control. Roll control will be provided by a blow-down system feeding monopropellant hydrazine to a series of attitude control thrusters. Small solid motors will fire to separate the upper stage from the interstage and to settle propellants.

An aft liquid oxygen tank will be topped by a forward liquid hydrogen tank, with a common bulkhead between, to compose the upper stage structure. The tanks will hold up to 128 tonnes of propellants. Tanks will be fabricated from the same 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy currently used to build shuttle External Tanks. The stage itself will be assembled at the current Michoud External Tank factory in New Orleans.

A cylindrical Instrument Unit will top the upper stage. It will contain guidance and control systems for the entire launch vehicle. Link

Apollo Spacecraft in Lunar Orbit


Orion Spacecraft



NASA's New Spacecraft: Ares and Orion


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Hurricane Preparation..

By: Patrap, 7:38 PM GMT on April 11, 2008





Evacuation Considerations for the Elderly, Disabled and Special Medical Care Issues Link

Your Evacuation Plan Link


Disaster Supplies Kit
Link

NOAA Alert Weather Radio's: Link




History teaches that a lack of hurricane awareness and preparation are common threads among all major hurricane disasters. By knowing your vulnerability and what actions you should take, you can reduce the effects of a hurricane disaster.

5
HURRICANE PREPAREDNESS TIPS



Hurricane hazards come in many forms: storm surge, high winds, tornadoes, and flooding. This means it is important for your family to have a plan that includes all of these hazards. Look carefully at the safety actions associated with each type of hurricane hazard and prepare your family disaster plan accordingly. But remember this is only a guide. The first and most important thing anyone should do when facing a hurricane threat is to use common sense.

You should be able to answer the following questions before a hurricane threatens:

*
What are the Hurricane Hazards?
*
What does it mean to you?
*
What actions should you take to be prepared?

Hurricanes and Your Health and Safety


* The great majority of injuries during a hurricane are cuts caused by flying glass or other debris. Other injuries include puncture wounds resulting from exposed nails, metal, or glass, and bone fractures.
* State and local health departments may issue health advisories or recommendations particular to local conditions. If in doubt, contact your local or state health department.
* Make sure to include all essential medications -- both prescription and over the counter -- in your family's emergency disaster kit.


* Hurricanes, especially if accompanied by a tidal surge or flooding, can contaminate the public water supply. Drinking contaminated water may cause illness. You cannot assume that the water in the hurricane-affected area is safe to drink.
* In the area hit by a hurricane, water treatment plants may not be operating; even if they are, storm damage and flooding can contaminate water lines. Listen for public announcements about the safety of the municipal water supply.
* If your well has been flooded, it needs to be tested and disinfected after the storm passes and the floodwaters recede. Questions about testing should be directed to your local or state health department.

Water Safety

* Use bottled water that has not been exposed to flood waters if it is available.
* If you don't have bottled water, you should boil water to make it safe. Boiling water will kill most types of disease-causing organisms that may be present. If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloths or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for boiling. Boil the water for one minute, let it cool, and store it in clean containers with covers.
* If you can't boil water, you can disinfect it using household bleach. Bleach will kill some, but not all, types of disease-causing organisms that may be in the water. If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloths or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for disinfection. Add 1/8 teaspoon (or 8 drops) of regular, unscented, liquid household bleach for each gallon of water, stir it well and let it stand for 30 minutes before you use it. Store disinfected water in clean containers with covers.
* If you have a well that has been flooded, the water should be tested and disinfected after flood waters recede. If you suspect that your well may be contaminated, contact your local or state health department or agriculture extension agent for specific advice.

Food Safety

* Do not eat any food that may have come into contact with flood water.
* Discard any food that is not in a waterproof container if there is any chance that it has come into contact with flood water. Food containers that are not waterproof include those with screw-caps, snap lids, pull tops, and crimped caps. Also, discard cardboard juice/milk/baby formula boxes and home canned foods if they have come in contact with flood water, because they cannot be effectively cleaned and sanitized.
* Inspect canned foods and discard any food in damaged cans. Can damage is shown by swelling; leakage; punctures; holes; fractures; extensive deep rusting; or crushing/denting severe enough to prevent normal stacking or opening with a manual, wheel-type can opener.
* Undamaged, commercially prepared foods in all-metal cans and retort pouches (for example, flexible, shelf-stable juice or seafood pouches) can be saved if you do the following:
o Remove the labels, if they are the removable kind, since they can harbor dirt and bacteria.
o Thoroughly wash the cans or retort pouches with soap and water, using hot water if it is available.
o Brush or wipe away any dirt or silt.
o Rinse the cans or retort pouches with water that is safe for drinking, if available, since dirt or residual soap will reduce the effectiveness of chlorine sanitation.
o Then, sanitize them by immersion in one of the two following ways:
+ place in water and allow the water to come to a boil and continue boiling for 2 minutes, or
+ place in a freshly-made solution consisting of 1 tablespoon of unscented liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of drinking water (or the cleanest, clearest water available) for 15 minutes.
* Air dry cans or retort pouches for a minimum of 1 hour before opening or storing.
* If the labels were removable, then re-label your cans or retort pouches, including the expiration date (if available), with a marker.
* Food in reconditioned cans or retort pouches should be used as soon as possible, thereafter.
* Any concentrated baby formula in reconditioned, all-metal containers must be diluted with clean, drinking water.
* Thoroughly wash metal pans, ceramic dishes, and utensils (including can openers) with soap and water, using hot water if available. Rinse, and then sanitize them by boiling in clean water or immersing them for 15 minutes in a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of drinking water (or the cleanest, clearest water available).
* Thoroughly wash countertops with soap and water, using hot water if available. Rinse, and then sanitize by applying a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of drinking water (or the cleanest, clearest water available). Allow to air dry.

Frozen and Refrigerated Foods

* If you will be without power for a long period:
o ask friends to store your frozen foods in their freezers if they have electricity;
o see if freezer space is available in a store, church, school, or commercial freezer that has electrical service; or
o use dry ice, if available. Twenty-five pounds of dry ice will keep a ten-cubic-foot freezer below freezing for 3-4 days. Use care when handling dry ice, and wear dry, heavy gloves to avoid injury.
* Your refrigerator will keep foods cool for about four hours without power if it is unopened. Add block or dry ice to your refrigerator if the electricity will be off longer than four hours.
* Thawed food can usually be eaten if it is still "refrigerator cold," or re-frozen if it still contains ice crystals.
* To be safe, remember, "When in doubt, throw it out." Discard any food that has been at room temperature for two hours or more, and any food that has an unusual odor, color, or texture.

Sanitation and Hygiene

It is critical for you to remember to practice basic hygiene during the emergency period. Always wash your hands with soap and water that has been boiled or disinfected:

* before preparing or eating
* after toilet use
* after participating in cleanup activities; and
* after handling articles contaminated with floodwater or sewage.

If there is flooding along with a hurricane, the waters may contain fecal material from overflowing sewage systems and agricultural and industrial waste. Although skin contact with floodwater does not, by itself, pose a serious health risk, there is risk of disease from eating or drinking anything contaminated with floodwater.

If you have any open cuts or sores that will be exposed to floodwater, keep them as clean as possible by washing them with soap and applying an antibiotic ointment to discourage infection. If a wound develops redness, swelling, or drainage, seek immediate medical attention.

Do not allow children to play in floodwater areas. Wash children's hands frequently (always before meals), and do not allow children to play with floodwater-contaminated toys that have not been disinfected. You can disinfect toys using a solution of one cup of bleach in five gallons of water.

Immunizations

Outbreaks of communicable diseases after hurricanes are unusual. However, the rates of diseases that were present before a hurricane may increase because of a lack of sanitation or overcrowding in shelters. Increases in infectious diseases that were not present before the hurricane are not a problem, so mass vaccination programs are unnecessary.

If you have wounds, you should be evaluated for a tetanus immunization, just as you would at any other time of injury. If you receive a puncture wound or a wound contaminated with feces, soil, or saliva, have a doctor or health department determine whether a tetanus booster is necessary based on individual records.

Specific recommendations for vaccinations should be made on a case-by-case basis, or as determined by local and state health departments.

Mosquitoes

Rain and flooding in a hurricane area may lead to an increase in mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are most active at sunrise and sunset. In most cases, the mosquitoes will be pests but will not carry communicable diseases. It is unlikely that diseases which were not present in the area prior to the hurricane would be of concern. Local, state, and federal public health authorities will be actively working to control the spread of any mosquito-borne diseases.

To protect yourself from mosquitoes, use screens on dwellings, and wear clothes with long sleeves and long pants. Insect repellents that contain DEET are very effective. Be sure to read all instructions before using DEET. Care must be taken when using DEET on small children. Products containing DEET are available from stores and through local and state health departments.

To control mosquito populations, drain all standing water left in open containers outside your home.

Mental Health

The days and weeks after a hurricane are going to be rough. In addition to your physical health, you need to take some time to consider your mental health as well. Remember that some sleeplessness, anxiety, anger, hyperactivity, mild depression, or lethargy are normal, and may go away with time. If you feel any of these symptoms acutely, seek counseling. Remember that children need extra care and attention before, during, and after the storm. Be sure to locate a favorite toy or game for your child before the storm arrives to help maintain his/her sense of security. Your state and local health departments will help you find the local resources, including hospitals or health care providers, that you may need.

Seeking Assistance after a Hurricane

SEEKING DISASTER ASSISTANCE: Throughout the recovery period, it is important to monitor local radio or television reports and other media sources for information about where to get emergency housing, food, first aid, clothing, and financial assistance. The following section provides general information about the kinds of assistance that may be available.

DIRECT ASSISTANCE: Direct assistance to individuals and families may come from any number of organizations, including: the American Red Cross, the Salvation Army, and other volunteer organizations. These organizations provide food, shelter, supplies and assist in clean-up efforts.

THE FEDERAL ROLE: In the most severe disasters, the federal government is also called in to help individuals and families with temporary housing, counseling (for post-disaster trauma), low-interest loans and grants, and other assistance. The federal government also has programs that help small businesses and farmers.

Most federal assistance becomes available when the President of the United States declares a �Major Disaster� for the affected area at the request of a state governor. FEMA will provide information through the media and community outreach about federal assistance and how to apply.

Coping after a Hurricane Everyone who sees or experiences a hurricane is affected by it in some way. It is normal to feel anxious about your own safety and that of your family and close friends. Profound sadness, grief, and anger are normal reactions to an abnormal event. Acknowledging your feelings helps you recover. Focusing on your strengths and abilities helps you heal. Accepting help from community programs and resources is healthy. Everyone has different needs and different ways of coping. It is common to want to strike back at people who have caused great pain. Children and older adults are of special concern in the aftermath of disasters. Even individuals who experience a disaster �second hand� through exposure to extensive media coverage can be affected.

Contact local faith-based organizations, voluntary agencies, or professional counselors for counseling. Additionally, FEMA and state and local governments of the affected area may provide crisis counseling assistance.

Minimize this emotional and traumatic experience by being prepared, not scared and therefore you and your family will stay in control and survive a major hurricane.

SIGNS OF HURRICANE RELATED STRESS:

* Difficulty communicating thoughts.
* Difficulty sleeping.
* Difficulty maintaining balance in their lives.
* Low threshold of frustration.
* Increased use of drugs/alcohol.
* Limited attention span.
* Poor work performance.
* Headaches/stomach problems.
* Tunnel vision/muffled hearing.
* Colds or flu-like symptoms.
* Disorientation or confusion.
* Difficulty concentrating.
* Reluctance to leave home.
* Depression, sadness.
* Feelings of hopelessness.
* Mood-swings and easy bouts of crying.
* Overwhelming guilt and self-doubt.
* Fear of crowds, strangers, or being alone.

EASING HURRICANE RELATED STRESS:

* Talk with someone about your feelings - anger, sorrow, and other emotions - even though it may be difficult.
* Seek help from professional counselors who deal with post-disaster stress.
* Do not hold yourself responsible for the disastrous event or be frustrated because you feel you cannot help directly in the rescue work.
* Take steps to promote your own physical and emotional healing by healthy eating, rest, exercise, relaxation, and meditation.
* Maintain a normal family and daily routine, limiting demanding responsibilities on yourself and your family.
* Spend time with family and friends.
* Participate in memorials.
* Use existing support groups of family, friends, and religious institutions.
* Ensure you are ready for future events by restocking your disaster supplies kits and updating your family disaster plans


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The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.